Procrastination refers to the counterproductive deferment of actions or tasks to a later time. Psychologists often cite such behavior as amechanism for coping with the anxiety associated with starting or completing any task or decision.[1] Schraw, Pinard, Wadkins, and Olafson have proposed three criteria for a behavior to be classified as procrastination: it must be counterproductive, needless, and delaying.[2]
Procrastination may result in stress, a sense of guilt and crisis, severe loss of personal productivity, as well as social disapproval for not meeting responsibilities or commitments. These feelings combined may promote further procrastination. While it is regarded as normal for people to procrastinate to some degree, it becomes a problem when it impedes normal functioning. Chronic procrastination may be a sign of an underlying psychological disorder.


The modern term comes from the Latin word procrastinatus, which is the past participle of procrastinare derived from pro- (forward) andcrastinus (of tomorrow). It is first attested in 1548 by the Oxford English Dictionary.[3]

Causes of procrastination


The psychological causes of procrastination vary greatly, but generally surround issues of anxiety, low sense of self-worth, and a self-defeating mentality.[4] Procrastinators are also thought to have a lower-than-normal level of conscientiousness, more based on the "dreams and wishes" of perfection or achievement in contrast to a realistic appreciation of their obligations and potential.[5]


Research on the physiological roots of procrastination mostly surrounds the role of the prefrontal cortex.[6] This area of the brain is responsible for executive brain functions such as planning, impulse control, attention, and acts as a filter by decreasing distracting stimuli from other brain regions. Damage or low activation in this area can reduce an individual's ability to filter out distracting stimuli, ultimately resulting in poorer organization, a loss of attention and increased procrastination. This is similar to the prefrontal lobe's role in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), where underactivation is common.[5]

Procrastination and mental health

For some people, procrastination can be persistent and tremendously disruptive to everyday life. For these individuals, procrastination may be symptomatic of a psychological disorder such as depression orADHD. Therefore, it is important for people whose procrastination has become chronic and is perceived to be debilitating, to seek out a trained therapist or psychiatrist to see if an underlying mental health issue may be present.


Traditionally, procrastination has been associated with perfectionism, a tendency to negatively evaluate outcomes and one's own performance, intense fear and avoidance of evaluation of one's abilities by others, heightened social self-consciousness and anxiety, recurrent low mood, and "workaholism". According to Robert B. Slaney[7] adaptive perfectionists (when perfectionism is egosyntonic) were less likely to procrastinate than non-perfectionists, while maladaptive perfectionists (people who saw their perfectionism as a problem; i.e., when perfectionism is egodystonic) had high levels of procrastination (and also of anxiety).[8]

Academic procrastination

More specifically, a 1992 study showed that "52% of surveyed students indicated having a moderate to high need for help concerning procrastination".[9] It is estimated that 80%-95% of college students engage in procrastination, approximately 75% considering themselves procrastinators.[10]
One source of procrastination is underestimating the time required to analyze research. Many students devote weeks to gathering research for a term paper, but are unable to finish writing it because they have to review many contradictory opinions before they can offer their own perspective on the subject. Despite knowing how to consult resources, they struggle to perform their own analysis.[11]
"Student syndrome" refers to the phenomenon where a student will only begin to fully apply themselves to a task immediately before a deadline. This negates the usefulness of any buffers built into individual task duration estimates. Students also have difficulties when self-imposing deadlines.[12] The principle is also addressed in Agile Software Development.

Types of procrastinators

The relaxed type

The relaxed type of procrastinators view their responsibilities negatively and avoid them by directing energy into other tasks. It is common, for example, for relaxed type procrastinating children to abandon schoolwork but not their social lives. Students often see projects as a whole rather than breaking them into smaller parts. This type of procrastination is a form of denial or cover-up; therefore, typically no help is being sought. Furthermore, they are also unable to defer gratification. The procrastinator avoids situations that would cause displeasure, indulging instead in more enjoyable activities. InFreudian terms, such procrastinators refuse to renounce the pleasure principle, instead sacrificing the reality principle. They may not appear to be worried about work and deadlines, but this is simply an evasion of the work that needs to be completed.[13] They ignore the time needed for their preperation for examinations. Their logical mind will give reasons to procrastinate.

The tense-afraid type

The tense-afraid type of procrastinators usually feel overwhelmed with pressure, unrealistic about time, uncertain about goals, and many other negative feelings. They may feel a sense of malaise. Feeling that they lack the ability or focus to successfully complete their work, they tell themselves that they need to unwind and relax, that it's better to take it easy for the afternoon, for example, and start afresh in the morning. They usually have grandiose plans that aren't realistic. Their 'relaxing' is often temporary and ineffective, and leads to even more stress as time runs out, deadlines approach and the person feels increasingly guilty and apprehensive. This behavior becomes a cycle of failure and delay, as plans and goals are put off, pencilled into the following day or week in the diary again and again. It can also have a debilitating effect on their personal lives and relationships. Since they are uncertain about their goals, they often feel awkward with people who appear confident and goal-oriented, which can lead to depression. Tense-afraid procrastinators often withdraw from social life, avoiding contact even with close friends.[13]

Stigma and misunderstanding

Procrastinators often have great difficulty in seeking help, or finding an understanding source of support, due to the stigma and profound misunderstanding surrounding extreme forms of procrastination. One of the symptoms, known to psychologists as task-aversion, is often mischaracterised as laziness, a lack of willpower or loss of ambition.[14]


Sample Text

أنا إن عشت لست أُعدم قوتا ** وإذا مت لست أعدم قبرا
همتي همة الملوك ونفسـي** نفس حر ترى المذلة كفرا
وإذا ما قنعت بالقوت عمري** فلماذا أخاف زيدا وعمروا

إذا وقع الذباب على طعام رفعت يدي ونفسي تشتهيه
وتجتنب الأسود ورود ماء إذا كن الكلاب ولغن فيه

إذا كنت في نعمة فارعها
فإن المعاصي تزيل النعم
وحافظ عليها بتقوى الإله
فإن الإله سريع النقم

لسانك لا تذكر بها عورة امرئ
فكلك عورات وللناس ألسن
وعينك إن أبدت إليك معايباً لقوم
فقل يا عين للناس أعين

يا رب عفوك لا تأخذ بزلتنا
وارحم أيا رب ذنباً قد جنيناه
كم نطلب الله في ضر يحل بنا
فإن تولت بلايانا نسيناه
ندعوه في البحر أن ينجي سفينتنا
فإن رجعنا إلى الشاطي عصيناه
ونركب الجو في أمن وفي دعة
فما سقطنا لأن الحافظ الله

فَلا تَغُرَّنَّكَ الدُّنْيــا وَزِينَتُها *

وانْظُرْ إلى فِعْلِهــا في الأَهْلِ والوَطَنِ

وانْظُرْ إِلى مَنْ حَوَى الدُّنْيا بِأَجْمَعِها *

هَلْ رَاحَ مِنْها بِغَيْرِ الحَنْطِ والكَفَنِ

خُذِ القَنـَاعَةَ مِنْ دُنْيَاك وارْضَ بِها *

لَوْ لم يَكُنْ لَكَ إِلا رَاحَةُ البَدَنِ

يَـا زَارِعَ الخَيْرِ تحصُدْ بَعْدَهُ ثَمَراً *

يَا زَارِعَ الشَّرِّ مَوْقُوفٌ عَلَى الوَهَنِ

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john cena

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